Key points and main policy measures of structural

2022-08-19
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Since the reform and opening-up, the level of light industry opening to the outside world has further improved, and export earnings have increased significantly. In 2000, the total import and export volume of light industrial products reached 92.52 billion US dollars, of which 22.19 billion US dollars were imported and 70.33 billion US dollars were exported. The export volume increased by 33 times over 1978. During the Ninth Five Year Plan period, the export volume of light industrial products increased by 12.1% annually. The proportion of technology and capital intensive and high value-added products in export products has increased rapidly, and the mode of export trade has changed to multi-channel and multi-form. Great progress has been made in the utilization of foreign capital. About US $40billion of foreign capital has been utilized in light industry nationwide, of which about US $35billion is foreign direct investment

the "Tenth Five Year Plan" for light industry predicts the development trend of domestic and foreign markets, and puts forward guiding opinions for the development of foreign trade and economic cooperation in light industry in the next five years. The plan believes that from the perspective of the general trend of changes in domestic consumption structure, it will be a continuous consumption upgrading; The pace of upgrading consumer goods has accelerated, consumption diversification and consumption diversion have been further strengthened, and residents' consumption demand has changed from wave draining to multi-level. With the continuous expansion of world economy and trade and the mutual penetration of cultures of various countries, the internationalization trend of domestic consumption is also an important factor for the smooth progress of the experiment and the accuracy of the experimental results. The general trend of foreign market development is that the world economy and trade will continue to develop, but the growth rate will decline. The World Bank estimates that the growth rate of world trade is still higher than that of the world economy. It is estimated that the international trade volume of light industrial products in the world will reach US $1.5 trillion in 2005, which makes it possible for China to further expand the export of light industrial products. However, during the Tenth Five Year Plan period, the export growth rate of light industrial products will be lower than that of the ninth five year plan. The "plan" clearly puts forward the goal of earning foreign exchange from the export of light industry from 70billion US dollars in 2000 to about 100billion US dollars in 2005, "Ma Zhanfeng said. It is pointed out that we should adapt to the development trend of global economic integration, strive to enhance the international competitiveness of export enterprises, optimize the structure of export products, and gradually increase the proportion of technology, knowledge intensive products and high value-added products in export products and the amount of export exchange

the development speed of light industry during the Tenth Five Year Plan period is expected to be: the average annual growth rate of industrial added value is about 8.5%. The key points of structural adjustment: first, accelerate the development of light industry with high relevance, strong driving effect and large market space, such as papermaking, food, light industrial equipment and other industries. Mainly pulp and paper, food, light industrial equipment, etc

second, we should focus on cultivating and developing emerging industries with great market potential and high product added value, such as household appliances, plastics, household chemicals, interior decoration, packaging and decoration printing, stationery and sports goods, develop new varieties, expand new fields, and cultivate new economic growth points. Including household appliances, plastic products, household chemicals, packaging, decoration and printing, cultural, educational and sporting goods. Take household appliances for example. By 2005, the total output value of China's household appliance industry will reach 180billion yuan. The pace of international operation of key household appliance enterprises has accelerated, and the overseas production scale has reached more than US $500million. The output of main household appliances is: 18million household refrigerators, 20million washing machines, 26million air conditioners, 20million microwave ovens, 18million refrigerator compressors and 26million air conditioning compressors. CFCs replacement of refrigerators and freezers has been completed. Through the adjustment and optimization of the enterprise organization structure, several large enterprise groups with annual sales of more than 10 billion yuan will be gradually established, and a production system based on a number of parts specialized enterprises with famous brands as the leader and supporting complete machine enterprises will be formed. By 2005, CFC substances will be basically stopped in the production of refrigerators and freezers, and HCFC substances will be stopped in the export of air conditioners. At the same time, we should strengthen international operation. China's household electrical appliances are quite competitive in quality and price, and have great attraction and advantages in the medium and low-end market. We should continue to implement the market diversification strategy. While further expanding the traditional markets in developed countries and other regions with higher economic levels, we should vigorously develop new potential markets and gradually enter foreign marketing networks, using the functions of marketing networks to expand exports and reduce circulation costs. In addition, we should actively promote the development of processing trade abroad, and encourage qualified enterprises to carry out processing and assembly with materials (parts) abroad, and set up factories. The household appliance industry should transition from product output to capital output, and finally achieve the strategic goal of brand output

third, we should actively adopt high and new technologies to transform and improve traditional light industry industries such as leather, lighting appliances, daily silicate, metal products, daily machinery, and strive to adjust the product structure, expand product exports, and improve international competitiveness. Leather and products: the output of main products increases by 5% annually, and the sales revenue and export earnings increase by 10% annually, creating 3 to 5 international famous brand products. By 2005, the estimated output (converted into cow leather) will be 110million pieces and 2.5 billion pairs of leather shoes. Ceramic industry: export porcelain should aim at improving the grade of products and the amount of exchange per piece. Domestic porcelain should develop high, medium and low-grade products to meet the diversified needs of different consumption levels. We will actively develop reinforced porcelain, heat-resistant porcelain and underglaze colored porcelain. By 2005, the total output of daily-use ceramics will be controlled at 12billion pieces, 4.5 billion pieces will be exported, the exchange rate of a single piece will reach US $0.6, and the technical equipment of key backbone enterprises will reach the international advanced level at the end of the 1990s

main policy measures: - carefully study the WTO rules, make use of international practices, and reasonably implement industrial protection. Light industries are mostly labor-intensive products, with large export volume and wide range, which are vulnerable to foreign anti-dumping investigations and sanctions. Therefore, we should carefully study the relevant agreements and provisions of WTO, especially the agreements on technical barriers to trade, countervailing, anti-dumping and other agreements, as well as safeguard measures and dispute settlement mechanisms, strengthen the construction of the working system of anti-dumping and countervailing safeguard measures in light industry, and establish a new anti-dumping response mechanism with enterprises and industry associations as the main body. We should flexibly apply the relevant rules of WTO, strengthen the work of anti-dumping, countervailing and safeguard measures in accordance with the law, and scientifically and reasonably protect the light industry for its political achievements, which also makes its popularity soar and its economic security

-- further expand opening-up, establish and improve an open economic system for light industry, and actively implement the internationalization strategy of "going global". First, while further relaxing policies and expanding the total amount of foreign capital utilization, we should focus on optimizing the structure of foreign investment and improving the quality and level of foreign capital utilization. In particular, we should guide foreign investment in the western region and promote the development of light industry in the western region with resource advantages. The second is to encourage and support qualified enterprises and enterprise groups to set up factories abroad, develop processing trade, and realize the transformation from simply exporting goods to setting up factories overseas and investing abroad, so that the machine can pull, press, bend, shear, low-frequency circulation and various waveform force deformation and capital verification of materials. Third, introduce foreign intelligence and talents in an all-round way to provide intellectual support for the comprehensive opening and sustainable development of light industry

-- do everything possible to expand exports. We will increase the proportion of exports of technology intensive and high value-added light industrial mechanical and electrical products, increase the technological transformation of key export industries and enterprises such as leather, plastics, hardware, household appliances, clocks and watches, lighting appliances, arts and crafts, and implement policy preferences for high foreign exchange earning enterprises. To continue to implement the strategy of market diversification and winning by quality, and to develop the international light industrial products market, we often need to deepen the development of markets in the United States, Europe, Japan and other markets on the basis of consolidating the original traditional markets in Southeast Asia, and strengthen the development of emerging markets such as the Commonwealth of Independent States, Eastern Europe, Africa, Australia, New Zealand and Latin America. We should thoroughly study the market trends at home and abroad and establish a modern light industry marketing network system

-- make full use of the capital market to absorb all kinds of funds in various forms, channels and all directions. We will absorb more foreign loans, foreign direct investment, and various investment funds, and encourage qualified large light industry enterprises and enterprise groups to list abroad for direct financing

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